A CENTURY OF COLONIAL HISTORY, 1660-1760
Books for Study and Reading
References.--Fiske's United States for Schools 133-180; McMaster's School History, 93-108 (life in 1763); Source-Book, ch. vii; Fisher's Colonial Era; Earle's Child Life.
Home Readings.--Parkman's Montcalm and Wolfe; Franklin's Autobiography; Brooks's In Leisler's Times; Coffin's Old Times in the Colonies; Cooper's Last of the Mohicans; Scudder's Men and Manners One Hundred Years Ago.
THE COLONIES UNDER CHARLES II
The Puritan in England. Higginson and Channing,
English History for Americans, 182-195.
65. The Puritans and the Colonists, 1649-60.--In 1649 Charles I was executed, and for eleven years the Puritans were supreme in England. During this time the New England colonists governed themselves, and paid little heed to the wishes and orders of England's rulers. After some hesitation, the Virginians accepted the authority of Cromwell and the Puritans. In return they were allowed to govern themselves. In Maryland the Puritans overturned Baltimore's governor and ruled the province for some years.
The Restoration, 1660. English History for
66. Colonial Policy of Charles II.--In 1660 Charles II became king of England or was "restored" to the throne, as people said at the time. Almost at once there was a great revival of interest in colonization, and the new government interfered vigorously in colonial affairs. In 1651 the Puritans had begun the system of giving the English trade only to English merchants and shipowners. This system was now extended, and the more important colonial products could be carried only to English ports.
Charles II and Massachusetts.
67. Attacks on Massachusetts.--The new government was especially displeased by the independent spirit shown by Massachusetts. Only good Puritans could vote in that colony, and members of the Church of England could not even worship as they wished. The Massachusetts people paid no heed whatever to the navigation laws and asserted that acts of Parliament had no force in the colony. It chanced that at this time Massachusetts had placed herself clearly in the wrong by hanging four persons for no other reason than that they were Quakers. The English government thought that now the time had come to assert its power. It ordered the Massachusetts rulers to send other Quakers to England for trial. But, when this order reached Massachusetts, there were no Quakers in prison awaiting trial, and none were ever sent to England.
Charters of Connecticut and Rhode Island,
68. Connecticut and Rhode Island.--While the English government was attacking Massachusetts it was giving most liberal charters to Connecticut and to Rhode Island. Indeed, these charters were so liberal that they remained the constitutions of the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island until long after the American Revolution. The Connecticut charter included New Haven within the limits of the larger colony and thus put an end to the separate existence of New Haven.
The English conquest of New Netherland, 1664. Higginson. 97-98.
69. Conquest of New Netherland, 1664.--The English government now determined to conquer New Netherland. An English fleet sailed to New Amsterdam. Stuyvesant thumped up and down on his wooden leg. But he was almost the only man in New Amsterdam who wanted to fight. He soon surrendered, and New Netherland became an English colony. The Dutch later recaptured it and held it for a time; but in 1674 they finally handed it over to England.
New Netherland given to the Duke of York and Albany.
70. New York.--Even before the colony was seized in 1664, Charles II gave it away to his brother James, Duke of York and Albany, who afterward became king as James II. The name of New Netherland was therefore changed to New York, and the principal towns were also named in his honor, New York and Albany. Little else was changed in the colony. The Dutch were allowed to live very nearly as they had lived before, and soon became even happier and more contented than they had been under Dutch rule. Many English settlers now came in. The colony became rich and prosperous, but the people had little to do with their own government.
Origin of New Jersey, 1664.
71. New Jersey.--No sooner had James received New Netherland from his brother than he hastened to give some of the best portions of it to two faithful friends, Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley. Their territory extended from New York harbor to the Delaware River, and was named New Jersey in honor of Carteret's defense of the island of Jersey against the Puritans. Colonists at once began coming to the new province and settled at Elizabethtown.
East and West Jersey.
72. Later New Jersey.--Soon New Jersey was divided into two parts, East Jersey and West Jersey. West Jersey belonged to Lord Berkeley and he sold it to the Quakers. Not very many years later the Quakers also bought East Jersey. The New Jersey colonists were always getting into disputes with one another, so they asked Queen Anne to take charge of the government of the province. This she did by telling the governor of New York to govern New Jersey also. This was not what the Jersey people had expected. But they had their own legislature. In time also they secured a governor all to themselves and became a royal province entirely separate from New York. Pennsylvania and New York protected the Jersey people from the French and the Indians, and provided markets for the products of the Jersey farms. The colonists were industrious and their soil was fertile. They were very religious and paid great attention to education. New Jersey became very prosperous and so continued until the Revolution.
Founding of Carolina, 1663. Higginson, 124-127.
73. The Founding of Carolina.--The planting of New Jersey was not the only colonial venture of Carteret and Berkeley. With Lord Chancellor Clarendon and other noblemen they obtained from Charles land in southern Virginia extending southward into Spanish Florida. This great territory was named Carolina.
74. The Carolina Colonists.--In 1663, when the Carolina charter was granted, there were a few settlers living in the northern part of the colony. Other colonists came from outside mainly from the Barbadoes and settled on the Cape Fear River. In this way was formed a colony in northern Carolina. But the most important settlement was in the southern part of the province at Charleston. Southern Carolina at once became prosperous. This was due to the fact that the soil and climate of that region were well suited to the cultivation of rice. The rice swamps brought riches to the planters, they also compelled the employment of large numbers of negro slaves. Before long, indeed, there were more negroes than whites in southern Carolina. In this way there grew up two distinct centers of colonial life in the province.
[Illustration: Southern Carolina.]
75. Bacon's Rebellion, 1676.--By this time the Virginians had become very discontented. There had been no election to the colonial assembly since 1660 and Governor Berkeley was very tyrannical. The Virginians also wanted more churches and more schools. To add to these causes of discontent the Indians now attacked the settlers, and Berkeley seemed to take very little interest in protecting the Virginians. Led by Nathaniel Bacon the colonists marched to Jamestown and demanded authority to go against the Indians. Berkeley gave Bacon a commission. But, as soon as Bacon left Jamestown on his expedition, Berkeley declared that he was a rebel. Bacon returned, and Berkeley fled. Bacon marched against the Indians again, and Berkeley came back, and so the rebellion went on until Bacon died. Berkeley then captured the other leaders one after another and hanged them. But when he returned to England, Charles II turned his back to him, saying, "The old fool has killed more men in Virginia than I for the murder of my father."
[Illustration: THE HOUSE IN WHICH NATHANIEL BACON DIED. From an original sketch.]
76. Virginia after Bacon's Rebellion.--The Virginians were now handed over to a set of greedy governors. Some of them came to America to make their fortunes. But some of them were governors whom the people of other colonies would not have. The only event of importance in the history of the colony during the next twenty-five years was the founding of William and Mary College (1691) at Williamsburg. It was the second oldest college in the English colonies.
[Illustration: THE OPENING LINES OF THE PENNSYLVANIA CHARTER SHOWING ORNAMENTAL BORDER AND PORTRAIT OF CHARLES II.]
King Philip's War, 1675-76. Higginson, 137-138; Eggleston, 81-89.
77. King Philip's War, 1675-76.--It was not only in Virginia and Maryland that the Indians were restless at this time. In New England also they attacked the whites. They were led by Massasoit's son, King Philip, an able and far-seeing man. He saw with dismay how rapidly the whites were driving the Indians away from their hunting-grounds. The Indians burned the English villages on the frontier and killed hundreds of the settlers. The strongest chief to join Philip was Canonchet of the Narragansetts. The colonial soldiers stormed his fort and killed a thousand Indian warriors. Before long King Philip himself was killed, and the war slowly came to an end.
78. William Penn.--Among the greatest Englishmen of that time was William Penn. He was a Quaker and was also a friend of Charles II and James, Duke of York. He wished to found a colony in which he and the Quakers could work out their ideas in religious and civil matters. It chanced that Charles owed Penn a large sum of money. As Charles seldom had any money, he was very glad to give Penn instead a large tract of land in America. In this way Penn obtained Pennsylvania. James, for his part, gave him Delaware.
Settlement of Pennsylvania, 1682. Higginson, 101-105; Eggleston, 57-60; Source-Book, 67-69.
79. Founding of Pennsylvania, 1682.--William Penn had a great reputation for honesty and fair dealing among the English Quakers and among the Quakers on the continent of Europe as well. As soon as it was known that he was to found a colony, great numbers of persons came to Pennsylvania from England and from Germany. In a very short time the colony became strong and prosperous. In the first place, the soil of Pennsylvania was rich and productive while its climate was well suited to the growth of grain. In the second place, Penn was very liberal to his colonists. He gave them a large share in the government of the province and he allowed no religious persecution. He also insisted on fair and honest dealing with the Indians.
Mason and Dixon's line.
80. Mason and Dixon's Line.--In the seventeenth century the geography of America was very little understood in Europe--and the persons who drew up colonial charters understood it least of all. Charter lines frequently overlapped and were often very indistinct. This was particularly true of the Maryland and Pennsylvania boundaries. Penn and Baltimore tried to come to an agreement; but they never could agree. Years afterward, when they were both dead, their heirs agreed to have a line drawn without much regard to the charters. This line was finally surveyed by two English engineers, Mason and Dixon, and is always called after their names. It is the present boundary line between Pennsylvania and Maryland. In colonial days it separated the colonies where slavery was the rule from those where labor was generally free. In the first half of the nineteenth century it separated the free states from the slave states. Mason and Dixon's line, therefore, has been a famous line in the history of the United States.
COLONIAL DEVELOPMENT, 1688-1760
New policy of the Stuarts.
81. The Stuart Tyranny.--Instead of admiring the growth of the colonies in strength and in liberty, Charles and James saw it with dismay. The colonies were becoming too strong and too free. They determined to reduce all the colonies to royal provinces, like Virginia--with the exception of Pennsylvania which belonged to their friend, William Penn. There was a good deal to be said in favor of this plan, for the colonists were so jealous of each other that they would not unite against the French or the Indians. If the governments were all in the hands of the king, the whole strength of the British colonies could be used against any enemy of England.
End of the Massachusetts Company, 1684.
82. The Stuart Tyranny in New England.--The Massachusetts charter was now taken away, and Sir Edmund Andros was sent over to govern the colony. He was ordered to make laws and to tax the people without asking their consent. He did as he was ordered to do. He set up the Church of England. He taxed the people. He even took their lands from them, on the ground that the grants from the old Massachusetts government were of no value. When one man pointed to the magistrates' signatures to his grant, Andros told him that their names were worth no more than a scratch with a bear's paw. He also enforced the navigation laws and took possession of Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Plymouth. At the same time he was also governor of New Hampshire and of New York.
[Illustration: A PROCLAMATION OF 1690 FORBIDDING THE PRINTING OF NEWSPAPERS WITHOUT PERMISSION OF THE GOVERNMENT.]
Flight of James II.
83. The "Glorious Revolution" in America, 1689.--By this time Charles was dead, and James was King of England. The English people did not like James any better than the New Englanders liked Andros. In 1688 they rebelled and made William of Orange and his wife Mary, James's eldest daughter, King and Queen of England. On their part, the Massachusetts colonists seized Andros and his followers and shut them up in prison (April 18, 1689). The people of Connecticut and Rhode Island turned out Andros's agents and set up their old governments. In New York also Andros's deputy governor was expelled, and the people took control of affairs until the king and queen should send out a governor. Indeed, all the colonies, except Maryland, declared for William and Mary.
Policy of William and Mary.
84. The New Arrangements.--For a year or two William was very busy in Ireland and on the continent. At length he had time to attend to colonial affairs. He appointed royal governors for both Pennsylvania and Maryland. William Penn soon had his colony given back to him; but the Baltimores had to wait many years before they recovered Maryland. In New York there was a dreadful tragedy. For the new governor, Slaughter, was persuaded to order the execution of the leaders in the rising against Andros. Massachusetts did not get her old charter back, but she got another charter. This provided that the king should appoint the governor, but the people should elect a House of Representatives. The most important result of this new arrangement was a series of disputes between the king's governor and the people's representatives. Maine and New Plymouth were included in Massachusetts under the new charter. But New Hampshire remained a royal province.
Prosperity of the colonies, 1700-60.
85. The Colonies, 1700-60.--During these years immigrants thronged to America, and the colonies became constantly stronger. Commerce everywhere developed, and many manufactures were established. Throughout the colonies the people everywhere gained power, and had it not been for the French and Indian wars they would have been happy. Aside from these wars the most important events of these years were the overthrow of the Carolina proprietors and the founding of Georgia.
[Illustration: Carolina Rice Fields.]
Bad government of the Carolina proprietors.
86. North and South Carolina.--The Carolina proprietors and their colonists had never got on well together. They now got on worse than ever. The greater part of the colonists were not members of the Established Church; but the proprietors tried to take away the right to vote from all persons who were not of that faith. They also interfered in elections, and tried to prevent the formation of a true representative assembly. They could not protect the people against the pirates who blockaded Charleston for weeks at a time. In 1719 the people of Charleston rebelled. The king then interfered, and appointed a royal governor. Later he bought out the rights of the proprietors. In this way Carolina became a royal province. It was soon divided into two provinces, North Carolina and South Carolina. But there had always been two separate colonies in Carolina (p. 52).
87. Founding of Georgia, 1732.--In those days it was the custom in England to send persons who could not pay their debts to prison. Of course many of these poor debtors were really industrious persons whom misfortune or sickness had driven into debt. General Oglethorpe, a member of Parliament, looked into the prison management. He was greatly affected by the sad fate of these poor debtors, and determined to do something for them. With a number of charitable persons he obtained a part of South Carolina for a colony, and named it Georgia for George II, who gave the land. Parliament also gave money. For the government thought it very desirable to have a colony between the rich plantations of Carolina and the Spanish settlements in Florida.
Settlement of Georgia, 1733. Higginson,
127-130; Eggleston, 62-65; Source-Book, 71-73.
88. Georgia, 1733-52.--Naturally Oglethorpe had no difficulty in getting colonists. For the poor debtors and other oppressed persons were very glad to have a new start in life. Savannah was founded in 1733. The Spaniards, however, were not at all glad to have an English colony planted so near Florida. They attacked the Georgians, and Oglethorpe spent years in fighting them. The Georgia colonists found it very difficult to compete with the Carolina planters. For the Carolinians had slaves to work for them, and the proprietors of Georgia would not let the Georgians own slaves. Finally they gave way and permitted the colonists to own slaves. But this so disheartened the Georgia proprietors that they gave up the enterprise and handed the colony over to the king. In this way Georgia became a royal province.
EXPULSION OF THE FRENCH
Louis of France and William of Orange.
89. Causes of the French Wars.--At the time of the "Glorious Revolution" (p. 58) James II found refuge with Louis XIV, King of France. William and Louis had already been fighting, and it was easy enough to see that if William became King of England he would be very much more powerful than he was when he was only Prince of Orange. So Louis took up the cause of James and made war on the English and the Dutch. The conflict soon spread across the Atlantic.
Disadvantages of the English colonists.
90. Strength of the Combatants.--At first sight it might seem as if the English colonists were much stronger than the French colonists. They greatly outnumbered the French. They were much more prosperous and well-to-do. But their settlements were scattered over a great extent of seacoast from the Kennebec to the Savannah. Their governments were more or less free. But this very freedom weakened them for war. The French colonial government was a despotism directed from France. Whatever resources the French had in America were certain to be well used.
[Illustration: A "GARRISON HOUSE" AT YORK, MAINE, BUILT IN 1676.]
King William's War, 1689-97. Eggleston, 122-123.
91. King William's War, 1689-97.--The Iroquois began this war by destroying Montreal. The next winter the French invaded New York. They captured Schenectady and killed nearly all the inhabitants. Other bands destroyed New England towns and killed or drove away their inhabitants. The English, on their part, seized Port Royal in Acadia, but they failed in an attempt against Quebec. In 1697 this war came to an end. Acadia was given back to the French, and nothing was gained by all the bloodshed and suffering.
Queen Anne's War, 1701-13. Higginson, 143-147; Source-Book, 98-100.
92. Queen Anne's War, 1701-13.--In 1701 the conflict began again. It lasted for twelve years, until 1713. It was in this war that the Duke of Marlborough won the battle of Blenheim and made for himself a great reputation. In America the French and Indians made long expeditions to New England. The English colonists again attacked Quebec and again failed. In one thing, however, they were successful. They again seized Port Royal. This time the English kept Port Royal and all Acadia. Port Royal they called Annapolis, and the name of Acadia was changed to Nova Scotia.
King George's War, 1744-48.
93. King George's War, 1744-48.--From 1713 until 1744 there was no war between the English and the French. But in 1744 fighting began again in earnest. The French and Indians attacked the New England frontier towns and killed many people. But the New Englanders, on their part, won a great success. After the French lost Acadia they built a strong fortress on the island of Cape Breton. To this they gave the name of Louisburg. The New Englanders fitted out a great expedition and captured Louisburg without much help from the English. But at the close of the war (1748) the fortress was given back to the French, to the disgust of the New Englanders.
La Salle on the Mississippi, 1681.
94. The French in the Mississippi Valley.--The Spaniards had discovered the Mississippi and had explored its lower valley. But they had found no gold there and had abandoned the country. It was left for French explorers more than one hundred years later to rediscover the great river and to explore it from its upper waters to the Gulf of Mexico. The first Frenchman to sail down the river to its mouth was La Salle. In 1681, with three canoes, he floated down the Mississippi, until he reached a place where the great river divided into three large branches. He sent one canoe down each branch. Returning, they all reported that they had reached the open sea.
La Salle attempts to found a colony.
95. Founding of Louisiana.--La Salle named this immense region Louisiana in honor of the French king. He soon led an expedition to plant a colony on the banks of the Mississippi. Sailing into the Gulf of Mexico, he missed the mouth of the Mississippi and landed on the coast of Texas. Misfortune after misfortune now fell on the unhappy expedition. La Salle was murdered, the stores were destroyed, the Spaniards and Indians came and killed or captured nearly all the colonists. A few only gained the Mississippi and made their way to Canada. In 1699, another French expedition appeared in the Gulf of Mexico. This time the mouth of the Mississippi was easily discovered. But the colonists settled on the shores of Mobile Bay. It was not until 1718 that New Orleans was founded.
The French on the Ohio, 1749. McMaster,
96. Struggle for the Ohio Valley.--At the close of King George's War the French set to work to connect the settlements in Louisiana with those on the St. Lawrence. In 1749 French explorers gained the Alleghany River from Lake Erie and went down the Ohio as far as the Miami. The next year (1750) King George gave a great tract of land on the Ohio River to an association of Virginians, who formed the Ohio Company. The struggle for the Ohio Valley had fairly begun. Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia learned that the French were building forts on the Ohio, and sent them a letter protesting against their so doing. The bearer of this letter was George Washington, a young Virginia surveyor.
George Washington. Scudder's Washington; Hero
97. George Washington.--Of an old Virginia family, George Washington grew up with the idea that he must earn his own living. His father was a well-to-do planter. But Augustine Washington was the eldest son, and, as was the custom then in Virginia, he inherited most of the property. Augustine Washington was very kind to his younger brother, and gave him a good practical education as a land surveyor. The younger man was a bold athlete and fond of studying military campaigns. He was full of courage, industrious, honest, and of great common sense. Before he was twenty he had surveyed large tracts of wilderness, and had done his work well amidst great difficulties. When Dinwiddie wanted a messenger to take his letter to the French commander on the Ohio, George Washington's employer at once suggested him as the best person to send on the dangerous journey.
The French build Fort Duquesne.
98. Fort Duquesne.--Instead of heeding Dinwiddie's warning, the French set to work to build Fort Duquesne (Dü-kan') at the spot where the Alleghany and Monongahela join to form the Ohio,--on the site of the present city of Pittsburg. Dinwiddie therefore sent Washington with a small force of soldiers to drive them away. But the French were too strong for Washington. They besieged him in Fort Necessity and compelled him to surrender (July 4, 1754).
[Illustration: BRADDOCK'S CAMPAIGN.]
Braddock's expedition, 1755. Higginson, 152-154; Eggleston, 129-131; Source-book, 103-105.
99. Braddock's Defeat, 1755.--The English government now sent General Braddock with a small army of regular soldiers to Virginia. Slowly and painfully Braddock marched westward. Learning of his approach, the French and Indians left Fort Duquesne to draw him into ambush. But the two forces came together before either party was prepared for battle. For some time the contest was even, then the regulars broke and fled. Braddock was fatally wounded. With great skill, Washington saved the survivors,--but not until four shots had pierced his coat and only thirty of his three companies of Virginians were left alive.
The French and Indian War.
100. The War to 1759.--All the earlier French and Indian wars had begun in Europe and had spread to America. This war began in America and soon spread to Europe. At first affairs went very ill. But in 1757 William Pitt became the British war minister, and the war began to be waged with vigor and success. The old generals were called home, and new men placed in command. In 1758 Amherst and Wolfe captured Louisburg, and Forbes, greatly aided by Washington, seized Fort Duquesne. Bradstreet captured Fort Frontenac, on Lake Ontario. There was only one bad failure, that of Abercrombie at Ticonderoga. But the next year Amherst captured Ticonderoga and Crown Point and opened the way to Canada by Lake Champlain.
[Illustration: WOLFE'S RAVINE. This shows the gradual ascent of the path from the river to the top of the bluff.]
Capture of Quebec, 1759. Higginson, 154-156;
Eggleston, 137-139; Source-Book, 105-107.
101. Capture of Quebec, 1759.--Of all the younger generals James Wolfe was foremost. To him was given the task of capturing Quebec. Seated on a high bluff, Quebec could not be captured from the river. The only way to approach it was to gain the Plains of Abraham in its rear and besiege it on the land side. Again and again Wolfe sent his men to storm the bluffs below the town. Every time they failed. Wolfe felt that he must give up the task, when he was told that a path led from the river to the top of the bluff above the town. Putting his men into boats, they gained the path in the darkness of night. There was a guard at the top of the bluff, but the officer in command was a coward and ran away. In the morning the British army was drawn up on the Plains of Abraham. The French now attacked the British, and a fierce battle took place. The result was doubtful when Wolfe led a charge at the head of the Louisburg Grenadiers. He was killed, but the French were beaten. Five days later Quebec surrendered. Montreal was captured in 1760, and in 1763 the war came to an end.
Peace of Paris, 1763.
102. Peace of Paris, 1763.--By this great treaty, or set of treaties, the French withdrew from the continent of North America. To Spain, who had lost Florida, the French gave the island of New Orleans and all of Louisiana west of the Mississippi. To Great Britain the French gave up all the rest of their American possessions except two small islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Spain, on her part, gave up Florida to the British. There were now practically only two powers in America,--the British in the eastern part of the continent, and the Spaniards west of the Mississippi. The Spaniards also owned the island of New Orleans and controlled both sides of the river for more than a hundred miles from its mouth. But the treaty gave the British the free navigation of the Mississippi throughout its length.
QUESTIONS AND TOPICS
§§ 65, 66.--a. What government did England have after the execution of Charles I? Give three facts about Cromwell.
b. How did the accession of Charles II affect the colonies?
c. What laws were made about the commerce of the colonies?
§ 67.--a. How did the new government of England regard Massachusetts? Why?
b. Describe the treatment of the Quakers in Massachusetts.
§ 68.--a. Describe the charters given to Connecticut and Rhode Island. Why did Connecticut need a charter when she already had a constitution?
b. What other colony was united with Connecticut?
§§ 69,70.--a. Why did England wish to conquer New Netherland? Why did not the people of New Amsterdam wish to fight the English?
b. To whom did Charles give this territory?
§§ 71, 72.--a. Mark on a map the position of New Jersey.
b. Describe the division of New Jersey and its sale to the Quakers.
c. Why was the colony prosperous?
§§ 73, 74.--a. Describe the founding of Carolina.
b. Describe northern and southern Carolina, and note the differences between them.
§§ 75, 76.--a. What complaints did the people of Virginia make? Was Bacon a rebel?
b. Describe the later government of Virginia.
c. Why was the founding of William and Mary College important?
§ 77.--a. What was the cause of King Philip's War?
b. What were the results of the war?
§§ 78-80.--a. Find out three facts about the early life of William Penn. Why did colonists come to Pennsylvania?
b. What trouble arose with Maryland about the boundary line?
c. How was Mason and Dixon's line famous later?
§§ 81-84.--a. Why did Charles and James dislike the growing liberty of the colonies?
b. What changes did Andros make in New England?
c. Describe the "Glorious Revolution" in America.
d. What changes did William and Mary make in the colonial governments?
§§ 85-88.--a. How did the Carolina proprietors treat their colonists? What was the result of their actions?
b. Explain the reasons for the founding of Georgia.
§§ 89,90.--a. Compare the strength of the English and French colonies. What is a "despotism"?
b. Draw a map showing the position of the English and French colonies.
§§ 91-93.--a. Mark on a map all the places mentioned in the text.
b. Describe the expedition against Louisburg.
c. What was the result of these wars?
§§ 94-97.--a. Which country, England, France, or Spain, had the best claim to the Mississippi valley? Why?
b. Follow route of La Salle on a map, marking each place mentioned. Describe the settlement of Louisiana.
c. Why did the struggle between England and France begin in the Ohio valley?
d. Describe Washington's early training.
§§ 98-101.--a. Where was Fort Duquesne? Why was its position important? Describe Braddock's expedition and trace his route.
b. Mark on a map the important routes to Canada.
c. Describe the capture of Quebec. Why was it important?
§ 102.--a. What territory did England gain in 1763? What did Spain gain? What did France lose?
b. What was the great question settled by this war?
a. Were the New England colonies difficult to govern? Why?
b. In what respects were the colonial governments alike? In what respects were they unlike?
c. What events in any colony have shown that its people desired more liberty?
TOPICS FOR SPECIAL WORK
a. The Revolution of 1688 in England and America.
b. Write an account of the life of a boy or girl in any colony; tell about the house, furniture, dress, school, and if a journey to another colony is made, how it is made and what is seen on the way.
c. Arrange a table similar to that described on p. 18.
SUGGESTIONS TO THE TEACHER
In this period the growing difficulties between England and the colonies can be traced--especially in commercial affairs and in governmental institutions. Thus many of the causes of the Revolution may be brought out as well as the difficulties in the way of colonial union. This may be emphasized by noting the difference between the English and French colonies.